Tuesday, 15 November 2011 11:35
MOSCOW — A Russian spacecraft carrying an American and two Russians blasted off Monday from the snow-covered Kazakh steppes in a faultless launch that eased anxiety and fears about the future of U.S. and Russian space programs.
The Soyuz TMA-22 lifted off as scheduled at 8:14 a.m. (0414 GMT) Monday from the snow-covered Russian-leased Baikonur cosmodrome in Kazakhstan to carry NASA astronaut Dan Burbank and Russians Anton Shkaplerov and Anatoly Ivanishin on a mission to the International Space Station.
The launch had been delayed for two months due to the crash of an unmannned Progress cargo ship in August. It cast doubts about future missions to the station, because the rocket that crashed used the same upper stage as the booster rockets carrying Soyuz ships to orbit.
NASA warned that the space outpost will need to be abandoned temporarily for the first time in nearly 11 years if a new crew cannot be launched before the last of the station's six residents fly back to Earth in mid-November.
Russian space officials tracked down the Progress launch failure to an "accidental" manufacturing flaw and recalled all Soyuz rockets that had been built from space launchpads for a thorough examination. A successful launch of a Progress ship last month cleared the way for the crew to be launched.
The crew said they trusted the Soyuz, a workhorse of the Soviet and then Russian space program for more than 40 years. "We have no black thoughts and full confidence in our technology," Shkaplerov told journalists before the launch.
The new crew are to arrive just in time to keep the orbiting station manned. The three crew members currently on board the station are set to return to Earth on Nov. 21. Another crew launch next month is to take the station back to its normal six-person crew mode.
The 39-year-old Shkaplerov and 42-year-old Ivanishin are making their first flights into space. Burbank, 50, who will take over command of the space station, is a veteran of 12-day shuttle missions in 2000 and 2006. The three men are to remain aboard the space station until March.
Even in case of an engine failure like the one that led to the Progress crash in August, a Soyuz crew would have been rescued by an emergency escape system. But any further launch trouble would have prompted NASA to rethink the space station program, that now relies exclusively on Russian spacecraft after the retirement of the U.S. space shuttle fleet in July.
The August Progress crash was one in a string of spectacular launch failures that have raised concerns about the state of Russia's space industries. Last December, Russia has lost three navigation satellites when a rocket carrying them failed to reach orbit. A military satellite was lost in February, and the launch of the Express-AM4, described by officials as Russia's most powerful telecommunications satellite, went awry in August.
In the latest failure, an unmanned probe intended to collect ground samples on Phobos, a moon of Mars, in the most ambitious Russian interplanetary mission since the Soviet era, suffered an equipment failure shortly after Wednesday's launch and got stuck in Earth orbit. Efforts to contact the Phobos-Grunt (Phobos-Ground) craft have been unsuccessful and it's expected to come crashing down in a couple of weeks.
Russian space officials blamed the botched launches on obsolete equipment and an aging workforce. The space agency said it will establish its own quality inspection teams at rocket factories to tighten oversight over production quality.
By Vladimir Isachenkov
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